Milwaukee neighborhood yearns for better days in wake of police killing

Sherman Park residents are left with only memories of economic boom and multicultural celebration, as some say Sylville Smiths death symbolises last straw for those struggling amid steep unemployment and incarceration rates

When Sharina Smith arrived back home in Sherman Park, Milwaukee, on Wednesday after a decade living out of state, some things had changed irreversibly. Her 23-year-old cousin, Sylville Smith, was dead. Killed by a city police officer last Saturday after he ran from a traffic stop and allegedly pointed a gun. The gas station close to the familys daily vigils was now a pile of rubble and ash, burned in the riots that followed Smiths death.

But of the many things in the neighbourhood that had remained constant, Smith spoke about one in particular: the crippling poverty.

It hasnt gotten any better. It hasnt changed. People are outraged because of it. They get no attention, no help, Smith, 32, said. Thats why people were out on the those streets. My cousins death was one more thing.

In this overwhelmingly African American neighbourhood, in one of Americas most racially segregated cities, more than 43% of residents live in poverty. The schools here are worse off. The employment prospects more bleak. Public transport is lacking. Rent is going up. This summer tensions between local young people and police simmered following a spate of minor clashes inside the 20-acre park, which sits in the centre of the neighbourhood. Smiths death proved to be the event that tipped some people over the edge.

It used to be different, said state assemblyman David Bowen, a 29-year-old African American who has lived in the neighbourhood his entire life. He strolled along the neatly kept grass and pointed to the prime housing stock, built during the industrial boom years of the 1920s, which faces inwards towards the park. Once owner occupied, these units are now mostly rented and many are in a state of disrepair.

Decades ago it was the norm to make enough that you werent thinking about whether to buy your food or pay your rent.

Like many major cities in the US, including Detroit, Pittsburgh and Buffalo, Milwaukee saw an ascendancy through a manufacturing boom in the mid-20th century, followed by a sharp slump accompanied by urban decay. In the wake of globalization, domestic competition and industrial automation, these cities have experienced high crime rates, high unemployment and increased drug addiction.

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A woman with children walk past the boarded up BMO Harris bank following a shooting death by police in Milwaukee. Photograph: Darren Hauck/Getty Images

The Sherman Park neighbourhood was once celebrated as a standout success within Milwaukee during the 1970s for its racial integration and multicultural community-building.

African Americans who had moved into the area among tens of thousands driven to Milwaukee to escape the souths racist violence mixed among the existing Irish-Catholic, German-Lutheran and Jewish communities. Problems persisted; life was by no means perfect. But things felt better than in other neighbourhoods nearby.

Sherman Parks school district stood alone within the city by opposing racial segregation and busing while Milwaukee fought to preserve it in the face of a federal court order in 1976, according to Paul Geenen, a former long-time resident and local historian. Mixed-race soccer teams and block parties were effective threads tying the community together. But now the public schools in Milwaukee are almost as segregated as they were five decades ago.

We were respectable. It was mixed, white and black, we all got along together. I had black and white classmates at school, said 61-year-old Geoffrey Pugh, an African American who was born in the neighbourhood and spent decades here before moving away in the 1980s only to return four years ago. Weve got a lost generation now. Babies raising babies.

Two key developments in more recent decades radically altered the neighbourhoods course, according to Geenen.

One was the sharp decline in local manufacturing industries that had provided steady employment for a racially diverse blue-collar population, including for many black men. Between 1979 and 1984 Milwaukee lost 50,000 jobs more than it did during the Great Depression.

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A disused building is seen near the Sherman Park neighborhood in Milwaukee. Photograph: Aaron P Bernstein/Reuters

Most prominent was Allis-Chalmers, a heavy machinery manufacturer with roots in Milwaukee reaching back into the mid-19th century. The firm employed 20,000 people at its peak but collapsed in the mid-1980s amid rapidly rising international competition and corporate missteps.

In the 1970s, if you were African American, the realtors might not have been friendly, but you could afford a home in Sherman Park and you could raise a family, said Geenen. That isnt true today: those jobs are just gone.

Pugh, now retired, worked for decades at a General Motors factory two miles from the neighbourhood before it too closed down.

The other change was a rise in violent crime and drug use also seen in several other US cities into the 1980s and an accompanying influx of guns, as white families abandoned the neighbourhood. Previously kids would fight, we had bikes stolen, people had baseball bats, said Geenen. But nobody got shot.

The day before Smiths death last Saturday, five gun related homicides occurred across the city within a nine hour period. Wisconsin now incarcerates African American men of working age at the highest rate in America one in eight has spent time in prison. In 2010 researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee found that two-thirds of incarcerated black Milwaukee county residents came from just six zip codes, two of which were in Sherman Park.

Were just trying to grieve

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People gather at the place where Milwaukee police shot and killed Sylville Smith. Photograph: Jeffrey Phelps/AP

On the vacant plot of land next to the park, members of the Smith family were selling snacks to raise funds for legal and funeral costs. The park itself was encircled in plastic red mesh fencing and has been closed from 6pm every evening, drawing the ire of many local residents. The order was made by the controversial Milwaukee County sheriff David Clarke, a close ally of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump. Clarke, who is black, recently described the Black Lives Matter movement as a national security threat on the same level as terrorist organisations, including Isis.

As dusk fell on Wednesday, the Democratic Milwaukee mayor Tom Barrett arrived in a large SUV and attempted to offer members of the Smith family condolences. Only one agreed to shake the mayors hand and Barrett left within minutes of arriving.

The circumstances surrounding Sylville Smiths death remain unclear. Police maintain that the 23-year-old, who had an extensive criminal record, pointed a semi-automatic handgun at a black officer before he was shot dead. But family members say he was not armed at the time he was killed and that the officer, who has been named in unconfirmed reports, had known Smith since high school. They allege the pair may have previously been involved in a romantic dispute. Body camera footage of the incident has not been released.

At least one man in America seemed certain he knew already what had occurred. Donald Trump visited Milwaukee on Tuesday and told Fox News: The gun was pointed at his (a police officers) head, supposedly ready to be fired. Who can have a problem with that? Thats what the narrative is.

Maybe its not true. If it is true, people shouldnt be rioting.

At a rally on Tuesday evening, 20 miles from Milwaukee in the white majority town of West Bend, Trump sought to capitalise on the unrest in a direct plea to black voters.

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Police in riot gear assemble in an alley after disturbances following the police shooting of Sylville Smith. Photograph: Aaron P Bernstein/Reuters

The main victims of these riots are law-abiding African American citizens living in these neighbourhoods, Trump said, vowing to restore law and order to poor communities by increasing police presence.

Sharina Smith was appalled.

I dont want everyone to keep throwing Sylvilles name into all these different acts of violence and things thats going on. We are just trying to grieve.

Bowen, the state representative, couldnt help but see the irony:

The same individuals that champion the policies of cutting and cutting and cutting resources to these communities come back and say, now that you are in turmoil, and youre oppressed, we want to fix this problem. People can see through the hypocrisy.

If you dont hold law enforcement agencies accountable to treat communities with respect and dignity, essentially what youre saying is that you should be allowed to be mistreated and we will continue to criminalise your community.

Matthew Desmond, a Harvard sociologist and author of Evicted, an acclaimed study of poverty and the housing crisis in Milwaukee, said other recent fatal police shootings of African Americans in the city, such as Dontre Hamilton, an unarmed mentally ill man who was killed in 2014, have added to tensions.

These events are really critical and embed themselves in the collective memory of the people of northern Milwaukee, he said.

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The remains of an auto parts store after police faced off with protesters following the death of Sylville Smith. Photograph: Cengiz Yar/AFP/Getty Images

Hamiltons mother, Maria, has spent the past days counselling the Smith family: It kills me over and over again, each time another one of these shootings happen, she said.

At the same time, Desmond specifically points to a chronic underfunding of federal housing assistance programs that has made it harder for people to escape the poverty they fall into. A majority of poor families who rent are spending half of their income or more on housing costs, he said, while one in four are spending 70%.

According to Desmond, the resulting waves of eviction in the city and turnover of residents have eaten away at communities and left chaos where there may once have been cohesion.

We know that when neighbours work together they can really make a difference, he said. But weve allowed a situation where neighbours will remain strangers because theres so much instability. It has serious consequences.

An informal community alliance had been patrolling Sherman Park since mid-June, after local youths reported that police officers had been moving them out of the park, and making occasional arrests without cause. The disturbances gradually got worse and led to clashes with riot police in July and vandalism of local businesses. Last month a store attendant at the gas station that was targeted over the weekend riots fired shots at a group of youths he claimed had been harassing him.

The founder of these informal patrols, 29-year-old Vauhn Mayes, argued that the juveniles involved simply had nowhere else to go in the evenings. The initiative, funded entirely by community donations, started evening cookouts and activity groups. Mayes said that for many of the youths who attended, it was their only chance to eat a proper meal.

Were waking up to a problem that has been simmering for a long time, said Desmond. And it is now boiling over.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/aug/19/sylville-smith-sherman-park-milwaukee-poverty-race